High Amsterdam ~ Bijlage Muzieklexicon & Literatuurlijst

Bijlage 6 – Muzieklexicon

Acid house: Acid house is ontstaan in de jaren tachtig in Chicago, toen producers de nieuwe Roland TB-303 Bassline in de eerste houseproducties gebruikten. Dit maakt het mogelijk dance-tracks te maken die voornamelijk bestaan uit een telkens herhaalde baslijn en een drumritme. Het metronoom-strakke samenspel tussen drumcomputer en bascomputer zorgt voor een hypnotiserend effect.
BP M: Beats per minute, de tempoaanduiding die het aantal ‘beats’ (slagen) per minuut weergeeft.
Dance: Hoewel veel popmuziek betiteld kan worden als dansmuziek, heeft dance als genre sinds de jaren tachtig specifiek betrekking op grotendeels elektronische muziek die speciaal bedoeld is om de dansvloer vol te krijgen en zich richt op de clubcultuur. De meeste dance-stijlen kenmerken zich door eenvoudige, repeterende melodieën met een prominente bass-drum, in een vierkwartsmaat gespeeld.
Hardcore: De hardste, snelste en meest duistere van alle housestijlen. Vroeger bekend als gabber, nu ook als hardstyle.
Hiphop: Levensstijl én muziekstijl ontstaan in de jaren zeventig in The Bronx. De vier elementen die het fundament van de hiphop vormen: mc’ing, dj’ing, breakdance en graffiti. Schokkerige, funky muziekstijl die geconcentreerd is rond het rappen en waarin vaak gebruik wordt gemaakt van samples.
House: Verzamelnaam voor elektronische dansmuziek. Tegenwoordig ook: een specifieke stroming die het
meeste lijkt op de originele housemuziek uit Chicago, waarbij de nadruk minder op de elektronische instrumenten ligt en meer op de ‘groove’ en de vocalen.
Minimal: Subgenre van techno dat zich onderscheidt door lage basmelodieën, subtiele veranderingen, klikgeluiden en complexe vierkwarts beats. De kick is minder belangrijk dan bij techno. Opvallend is de gelijkwaardigheid van samples en geluidsfragmenten, waarbij alle componenten onmisbaar zijn voor de algehele ‘groove’.
Techno: Monotone ritmes, abstracte melodieën en het ontbreken van vocalen zijn de kenmerken van deze gecomputeriseerde muziek.
Tekno: Keiharde, compromisloze en psychedelische variant van hardcore, populair op illegale feesten.
Trance: Pompeuze house met dwingende vierkwartsmaat die wordt begeleid met dromerige melodieën en psychedelische effecten, afgewisseld met drumclimaxen.
Urban: Letterlijk: stedelijk. In Nederland containerbegrip en (nieuwe) verzamelnaam voor een commerciële, melodieuze en dansbare mix van R&B, rap en hiphop, mode, straatcultuur en glamour. Populair onder allochtone jongeren. Read more

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Christina Culwick ~ Why Gated Communities Threaten Democratic Cities

Photo: futurecapetown.com

Photo: futurecapetown.com

Recently I tried to drive through a gated section of Westcliff , an affluent suburb in Johannesburg, to avoid traffic, only to be stopped by the guard at the boom and informed that I was not permitted to go through. I insisted that I had every right to enter, since it was a public road so I couldn’t legally be prevented from entering. The guard was not convinced. I went on to claim my right to freedom of movement and he maintained his position to restrict it. Our back and forth continued – neither party budging, and both getting more indignant. Eventually I stormed out of my car, lifted the boom myself and was instructed by another guard to “Just go”.

Reflecting on this incident, I feel I should declare that I am a white, middle class South African who benefited from apartheid, and live adjacent to Westcliff. I acknowledge that the private security guard with whom I argued has likely experienced restriction of movement to a degree I cannot comprehend, and his experience of exclusion in Westcliff is likely far greater than mine. His job is to implement a system. My issue lies not with him but with that system.

Read more: http://futurecapetown.com/gated-communities

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Wesley Cecil ~ Wittgenstein His Life & Philosophy

A lecture covering the life and philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. For information on upcoming lectures, essays, and books by Wesley Cecil Ph.D.

Bertrand Russell ~ Introduction. Mr. Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, whether or not it prove to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an important event in the philosophical world. Starting from the principles of Symbolism and the relations which are necessary between words and things in any language, it applies the result of this inquiry to various departments of traditional philosophy, showing in each case how traditional philosophy and traditional solutions arise out of ignorance of the principles of Symbolism and out of misuse of language. The logical structure of propositions and the nature of logical inference are first dealt with. Thence we pass successively to Theory of Knowledge, Principles of Physics, Ethics, and finally the Mystical (das Mystische). In order to understand Mr. Wittgenstein’s book, it is necessary to realize what is the problem with which he is concerned. In the part of his theory which deals with Symbolism he is concerned with the conditions which would have to be fulfilled by a logically perfect language. There are various problems as regards language.

Read more: http://people.umass.edu/phil335-klement-2/tlp/tlp-ebook.pdf

Gutenberg.org ~  Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Wesley Cecil is a philosophy professor at Peninsula college.

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Samantha Spooner ~ Hubs Of Innovation, Art And Culture; These Are The Hidden Treasures Of Africa’s Slums

Photo: Mail & Guardian

Photo: Mail & Guardian

As part of the BBC’s “A Richer World” season, renowned Swedish statistician Hans Rosling recently discussed how West Africa managed to contain the Ebola virus.
It is a fascinating presentation, and part of it illustrates how the trajectory of things tend to change dramatically when they arrive in an African slum.

Sometimes it is for the worse, as in the case of Ebola. Other times, it is for the better, as with culture.

So it is with Semba, the type of infectious music that is always sure to snag the usual body wigglers in the room. Its rhythm combines a delicious mix of lively African beats, smooth samba tones and fast-paced Caribbean Zouk flavour to produce a sound that will keep you hip-locked for hours.
It’s easy to understand how this music got its name; semba comes from the singular Masemba, meaning “a touch of the bellies”, a move that characterises the appropriate semba dance stance.

Semba’s roots
Semba originated from the slums or musseques of Luanda, Angola, in the early 1960s. Urban Angolans began to take advantage of reforms in colonial policy and began to improve their daily lives, which included the creation of new cultural spaces. The production of semba, a local form of urban popular music, was at the forefront of this process.
Today the music is as alive and popular as it ever was, with new artists emerging every year. In fact, any conversation about contemporary Angolan music must always begin with semba. It has also achieved international popularity, particularly in Lusophone countries and across West Africa.
It goes to show, you cannot judge a book by its cover.

Read more:http://m.mgafrica.com/the-hidden-treasures

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David Jones ~ The Trial ~ 1993

The Trial is a 1993 film based on Harold Pinter’s screenplay adaptation of Franz Kafka’s 1925 novel The Trial.
Directed by David Jones and produced by Jan Balzer and Louis Marks, the film stars Kyle MacLachlan and has cameo appearances by several prominent British actors, including Anthony Hopkins, Juliet Stevenson, Alfred Molina, David Thewlis, and Michael Kitchen.

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Nikolaos Karagiannis & C.J. Polychroniou ~ The Scourge Of Dependency And Globalization In The Caribbean

11073562_10205708062168035_6993280865372115465_ntruth-out.org. April 2015. Historically, the Caribbean countries developed under the tutelage of different European empires, and more recently under North American dominance. As a result, the Caribbean came to be a classic area of plantation society as there is a certain unity to the region’s development and in its patterns of historical evolution. Furthermore, the plantation economy models emphasized the historical continuity of Caribbean dependence from the slave plantation to modification following emancipation, to further modification in the post-colonial era. Political independence established national sovereignty (i.e., “flag independence”) in older and newer nations of the Commonwealth Caribbean, when both groups were integrated into the international system. Consequently, the political process of national independence converted states, societies and nations that had evolved as integral parts of the global system. The effect was to legitimize their autonomy based on concepts of self-determination.

Read more: http://www.truth-out.org/the-scourge-of-dependency

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