Hoe verkoop je een troonopvolger? Poëzie, Politiek, Propaganda in de laat-Romeinse oudheid

claudius-claudianus

Claudius Claudinius
(ca. 370 – ca. 404)

In het huidige Engeland bezit het koningshuis geen politieke macht, maar heeft wel de status van nationale totempaal. Engelse historici en sociologen, die ten aanzien van hún koningshuis minder aan taboegevoelens leden dan hun Nederlandse collega’s, hebben onderzocht hoe koninklijke feestdagen, zoals de kroning van Elizabeth of het huwelijk van Lady Di, zijn geënsceneerd en welke effecten bij het publiek werden nagestreefd en bereikt. Boeiende onderzoeksresultaten werden gepubliceerd in een boek dat de realistische, voor sommige lezers cynische, titel droeg: The Selling of a Monarchy (’De Verkoop van een Vorstenhuis’). Een reportage van een koninklijk feest heeft nu eenmaal bepaalde raakvlakken met reclame-televisie. De titel van bovengenoemd boek vormt trouwens, evenals de titel van dit opstel, een zinspeling op een studie die in Amerika over presidentsverkiezingen geschreven werd: How to Sell a President?

Koninkrijken kennen altijd vele ceremoniële bijeenkomsten, feesten, herdenkingen, en bij al die gelegenheden werd en wordt het woord gevoerd. In de klassieke retorica noemt men dergelijke gelegenheids-speeches panegyrische redevoeringen, een term afkomstig van het Griekse woord ‘panegyrikon’ dat algemene (feest)vergadering betekent. Nog altijd neemt bij plechtigheden als ambtsaanvaarding, aankomst, huwelijk, verjaardag, begrafenis e.d. van een staatshoofd een officiële spreker het woord. Nu is het opmerkelijk dat de Romeinse dichter Claudius Claudianus, de held van ons verhaal, ook veel van dit soort speeches heeft gehouden, maar dan in poëtisch-metrische vorm (de dactylische hexameter die ook voor het epos werd gebruikt). Aan het hof van de jonge keizer Honorius te Milaan trad hij op als ‘poet laureate’ (dichter des vaderlands) in de jaren 396-404 na Christus. Honorius was in 395 tien jaar oud toen hij zijn vader, de beroemde christen-keizer Theodosius, opvolgde die op 17 januari van dat jaar plotseling gestorven was. Van de dichter Claudianus zijn een tiental ceremoniële, poëtische voordrachten bewaard gebleven. Men heeft wel eens verondersteld dat er van hogerhand roofbouw op de dichter is gepleegd. Zo’n groot aantal speeches en ceremoniën binnen tien jaar aan een en hetzelfde hof is géén blijk van grote populariteit van de keizerlijke familie, integendeel, het is een symptoom van de wankelheid van de troon. Al deze feesten en redevoeringen hebben tot functie de bevolking en de partijen rond de troon te verenigen en de plaats van de vorst als centrum van de macht of van de nationale eenheid te benadrukken.

De strikt literaire, antiek-retorische theorie van de panegyrische speech is naar moderne maatstaven naïef en misleidend. De schuld hiervan ligt bij de grote Aristoteles die in zijn bespreking van dit soort redevoeringen het publiek louter als toeschouwer definiëerde en de speech louter als pronkspeech, een verbaal huzarenstukje, voorloper van ‘l’art pour l’art’ en a-politieke ‘belles lettres’. Aristoteles heeft vermoedelijk aan de sofistische virtuositeit van zijn tijd gedacht en aan de Griekse stadsstaat van 1500 burgers, niet aan een miljoenenpubliek dat door massa-media kan worden gemanipuleerd. Tegenwoordig hebben moderne historici veel meer aandacht voor de politieke, massa-psychologische effecten van parades en speeches rond koningen en presidenten, rond Führer en Duce. Zo noemen Engelse historici, verenigd in het Engelse tijdschrift Past and Present, een drietal elementen die bij ceremoniële gelegenheden rond keizers en koningen e.d. een rol spelen en ook in dit opstel over Claudianus en Honorius achtereenvolgens aan de orde zullen komen: 1. charisma van het staatshoofd, zijn majesteit in de meest letterlijke betekenis van superioriteit, 2. consensus, de brede instemming van de onderdanen waardoor de troon wordt gesteund, 3. uitvinden van tradities. Read more

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Open Culture: Public Domain Day Is Finally Here!: Copyrighted Works Have Entered The Public Domain Today For The First Time In 21 Years

Earlier this year we informed readers that thousands of works of art and entertainment would soon enter the public domain—to be followed every year by thousands more. That day is nigh upon us: Public Domain Day, January 1, 2019. At the stroke of midnight, such beloved classics as Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” and “Yes! We Have No Bananas” will become the common property of the people, to be quoted at length or in full anywhere when the copyright expires on work produced in 1923. Then, 1924 will expire in 2020, 1925 in 2021, and so on and so forth.

It means that “hundreds of thousands of books, musical compositions, paintings, poems, photographs and films” will become freely available to distribute, remix, and remake, as Glenn Fleishman writes at Smithsonian. “Any middle school can produce Theodore Pratt’s stage adaptation of The Picture of Dorian Gray, and any historian can publish Winston Churchill’s The World Crisis with her own extensive annotations… and any filmmaker can remake Cecil B. DeMille’s original The Ten Commandments.”

Read more: http://www.openculture.com/2019/01/public-domain-day-is-coming.html

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Henry David Thoreau ~ On The Duty Of Civil Disobedience

Civil Disobedience is Thoreau’s primary essay on how to interact with Government. Here the author argues that a citizen must always uphold conscience over what is prescribed by law. Never one to accept the status quo, Thoreau says that if called, we must all disobey a system that is inherently prone to corruption and that even personal endangerment may be needed in order do what is right. An inspiration to luminaries such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr., this essay is one of the core American writings on government.

Read or download the book: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/71

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Pooyan Tamimi Arab ~ Spinoza, materiële religie en de vreemdeling – Spinozadag 2018

Dr. Pooyan Tamimi Arab is universitair docent religiewetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht. In zijn onderzoek richt hij zich op betwiste afbeeldingen, Islam en religieuze diversiteit in Nederland. In de recente publicatie “Amplifying Islam in the European Soundscape” onderzoekt hij hoe Islamitische geluiden in Nederland de culturele normen uitdagen en in hoeverre deze gereguleerd worden door de Nederlandse grondwet en overheid.

Zie: https://amsterdamsespinozakring.nl/

Zie ook: http://rozenbergquarterly.com/david-kenning-spinoza-philosopher-of-counter-radicalization/

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Being Human: Relationships And You ~ A Social Psychological Analysis – Preface & Contents

Preface
This book represents a new look at social psychology and relationships for the discerning reader and university student. The title of the book argues forcefully that the very nature of being human is defined by our relationships with others, our lovers, family, and our functional or dysfunctional interactions.

Written in easy to follow logical progression the volume covers all major topical areas of social psychology, with results of empirical research of the most recent years included. A common project between American and European social psychologists the book seeks to build a bridge between research findings in both regions of the world. In doing so the interpretations of the research takes a critical stand toward dysfunction in modern societies, and in particular the consequences of endless war and repression.

Including topics as varied as an overview of the theoretical domains of social psychology and recent research on morality, justice and the law, the book promises a stimulating introduction to contemporary views of what it means to be human.
A major emphasis of the book is the effect of culture in all major topical areas of social psychology including conceptions of the self, attraction, relationships and love, social cognition, attitude formation and behavior, influences of group membership, social influence, persuasion, hostile images, aggression and altruism, and moral behavior.

Table of contents

Introduction
1. The Theoretical Domain and Methods of Social Psychology
2. Cultural and Social Dimensions of the Self
3. Attraction and Relationships: The Journey from Initial Attachments to Romantic Love
4. Social Cognition: How We Think about the Social World
5. Attitude Formation and Behavior
6. The Influences of Group Membership
7. Processes of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance and Obedience
8. Persuasion
9. Hostile Inter-group Behavior: Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Discrimination
10. Aggression: The Common Thread of Humanity
11. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior
12. Morality: Competition, Justice and Cooperation
References

ISBN 978 90 5170 994 0 – NUR 770 – Rozenberg Publishers – 2008

“Therefore this reading has a rare and valuable feature, that of making a link between American and European social psychology: “Being human: Relationships and you” is an excellent example of how the two lines of thought are actually articulated…it is clearly written, using a professional yet assessable language and therefore easy to read by even the non-specialist public…always pointing to the fact that social psychology is not “just a science” but it deals with issues that constitute the substance of our existence as humans”.

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Being Human: Relationships And You. A Social Psychological Analysis ~ Introduction

The roots of Psychology are international, but so is psychology. A major figure in the history of psychology was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. The premier pioneer in the study of childhood development was the Swiss biologist Jean Piaget. The father of the psychoanalytic movement was an Austrian medical doctor Sigmund Freud. Modern European social psychology has made major contributions, for example in the field of social categorization theory. Henri Tajfel and his collaborators made signal contributions to the understanding of group behavior during his tenure at Bristol University, as did collaborators from other European countries.

However, Moghaddam (1987; 1990) described the United States as the “superpower” of academic psychology. In support of this claim he cites the volume of resources available to American scholars. Other observers have also described the US as the major source of academic social psychology, and the “center of gravity” for professional development (Bond, 1988). It would not be inaccurate to state that the vast majority of social psychological research is conducted in North American settings, including Canada. This might therefore be described as the “first world” of social psychology in terms of production and influence on the world scene.

Europe, with Great Britain and France leading in social psychological research, may be considered the second world of social psychology. Generally the university settings are smaller, and funds available not as large as those in the US, but social psychologists in Europe have made distinctive contributions of their own in the development of theory. In particular European scholars give more attention to intergroup behavior (e.g. Doise, Csepeli, Dann, Gouge, Larsen, & Ostelli, 1972), and the wider social context like social structure, and culture (e.g. ideology) (Jaspars, 1980; Doise, 1986). European and some American colleagues tend to criticize American scholars as being too individualistic (e.g. Sampson, 1977) and culture-blind in their orientation, having mainly developed theories that reflect the salient values, goals and issues of the United States that may not be equally valid in other societies, and neglecting other social phenomena like minority influence and social change (Moscovici, 1972).

European social psychologists have developed unique laboratory methodology, the minimal group situation to study the effects of social categorization on intergroup relations (Tajfel, Flament, Billig, & Bundy, 1971), along with observation studies of how people communicate attitudes in natural settings and create shared social representations (Potter and Wetherell, 1987; Van Dijk, 1987; Moscovici, 1981).

The third world of social psychology is found in the developing nations. Psychology in these countries is greatly hampered by lack of funding, and therefore has to rely to a large extent on psychology developed in other countries and cultural settings. There are many problems in these countries, which could benefit from a mature research based social psychology. The social problems of developing countries are to some extent distinctive as they involve issues of poverty, ethnic conflict, and lifestyles very different from the urban lives of the western world (see e.g. Kim, Yang and Hwang, 2006).

In the future we must look to the development of social psychology from all three worlds. There is much in the human experience that we have in common. We are all born into the world as dependent beings, all have to face developmental tasks, including forming families, and finding our social niche. We all face the great existential issues including the transitory nature of life. World psychology can provide insights that are helpful to all societies on these and other problems we all face. There are also specific problems unique to each society and culture. This is where the third world must make its contributions based on patient theoretical development, and empirical research. Reliable and valid empirical findings are superior to any armchair theorizing, regardless of the quality of the theoretical ideas. Only by empirical means can we eventually develop a significant world social psychology. Such a social psychology would describe the processes of social relations, thinking and social influence which would be common to all human beings. May this book be a step toward that noble quest, and stimulate the next generation of students, scholars, and all those interested in the field.

 

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Being Human. Chapter 1: The Theoretical Domain And Methods Of Social Psychology

Social psychological thinking is ancient, but the science described in these pages is modern. There are those who would say “there is nothing new under the sun”. It is true that we owe a great deal to philosophers like Aristotle, Socrates, Plato and many others, who thought about society, and made astute observations. Later scholars however have since put many of these early ideas, to the empirical test. We all have a cultural heritage to which we are indebted for many contemporary ideas.

However, social psychology as a separate field commenced with the publication of two books at the beginning of the twentieth century. William McDougall was the author of An introduction of Social Psychology published in 1908, and in the same year E.A. Ross published Social Psychology: An outline and source book. McDougall was a psychologist and Ross a sociologist, so it’s right to say that these two fields were the parents of social psychology. In fact, typically social psychology is taught in both fields, but with a somewhat different emphasis.

The major issue confronting those early thinkers was how the influence of others affects our behavior. Social psychology often reflects salient concerns in history, a fact that is easily ascertained by examining the major research topics in a given time period. In the early years of the twentieth century, the French revolution was still in the mind of many social thinkers and therefore social psychology placed an emphasis on such questions as why people behave less rationally in crowds. Le Bon said in affect “as individuals people are civilized, in crowds they are barbarians” (Larsen, 1977, p.iix).

Does the environment cause behavior; for example are some cultures more aggressive and war like than others? (Chagnon, 1997). McDougall felt that social behavior could be explained by social instincts, and therefore favored the “nature” explanation. In turn McDougall was influenced by Charles Darwin whose evolutionary theory proposed that the explanation of behavior is found in its contribution to survival. Others, however, suggested that we learn to behave in altruistic or aggressive ways through imitation of others and by the power of suggestion. For example, William James (1890), another influential pioneer, believed that the primary explanation for social behavior is “habit”; we learn our social behavior through repetition, thus emphasizing “nurture”. John Dewey (1922), another early thinker in social psychology, advanced the idea of the environment as a determinant and emphasized situational influences on behavior. These varying ideas contributed directly to the dominant theories which today influence and direct social psychological research and concepts.

1. Theories in social psychology
These early thinkers proposed major all embracing concepts in turn advocated as explaining all social behavior (Allport, 1985). For example, some proposed that hedonism (pleasure seeking) explain all that we do? Other thinkers suggested that we understand human behavior simply as a function of imitation or instincts. This emphasis on all embracing concepts, introduced the problem of “nominalism” into psychology. Do we really understand more by just labeling behavior? Eventually, social psychologists recognized the inadequacy of all encompassing principles and began the development of theories based on the scientific method.

What defines social psychology as a discipline? Allport (1985) suggested that social psychology is “an attempt to understand and explain how thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others” (p.3). In other words, social psychology is the scientific study of social cognition (how people think about each other), how people are influenced by the behavior of others (for example conformity processes), and how they relate to each other through cooperation or aggression.

Some scholars distinguish between a psychological and a sociological version of the discipline (see Hewstone & Manstead, 1995). The latter is said to address more explicitly the interface between the individual and the wider social structure. We think this is an unnecessary and outdated distinction. In fact, Allport also added to his definition that “The term ‘implied presence’ refers to the many activities the person carries out because of his position (role) in a complex social structure and because of his membership in a cultural group”. (Allport, 1985, p. 3). Hence, we agree with Jones (1985) that social psychology is “an excellent candidate for an interdisciplinary field” (p.47). The present book seeks to realize this standpoint. This rationale suggests that the definition of social psychology may be found in the major explanations it has produced of social behavior. This effort resulted in four major theories within psychology, and several within sociology and related social sciences. Read more

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