The World Bank – Urban China ~ Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization

By 2030, up to 70% of the Chinese population – some one billion – will be living in cities. How could China prepare for that? Find the answers in the report “Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive and Sustainable Urbanization”, as World Bank Country Director for China Klaus Rohland introduces it.

Download the report: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18865

In the last 30 years, China’s record economic growth lifted half a billion people out of poverty, with rapid urbanization providing abundant labor, cheap land, and good infrastructure. While China has avoided some of the common ills of urbanization, strains are showing as inefficient land development leads to urban sprawl and ghost towns, pollution threatens people’s health, and farmland and water resources are becoming scarce. With China’s urban population projected to rise to about one billion – or close to 70 percent of the country’s population – by 2030, China’s leaders are seeking a more coordinated urbanization process. Urban China is a joint research report by a team from the World Bank and the Development Research Center of China’s State Council which was established to address the challenges and opportunities of urbanization in China and to help China forge a new model of urbanization. The report takes as its point of departure the conviction that China’s urbanization can become more efficient, inclusive, and sustainable. However, it stresses that achieving this vision will require strong support from both government and the markets for policy reforms in a number of area. The report proposes six main areas for reform: first, amending land management institutions to foster more efficient land use, denser cities, modernized agriculture, and more equitable wealth distribution; second, adjusting the hukou household registration system to increase labor mobility and provide urban migrant workers equal access to a common standard of public services; third, placing urban finances on a more sustainable footing while fostering financial discipline among local governments; fourth, improving urban planning to enhance connectivity and encourage scale and agglomeration economies; fifth, reducing environmental pressures through more efficient resource management; and sixth, improving governance at the local level.

Citation: “World Bank; Development Research Center of the State Council, the People’s Republic of China. 2014. Urban China : Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18865 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”

Nick Hedges – Below The Poverty Line: Slum Britain In The 1960s – In Pictures

Mrs T and her family of five lived in a decaying terraced house owned by a steelworks. She had no gas, no electricity, no hot water, no bathroom. Her cooking was done on the fire in the living room. Sheffield, May 1969. Photo: Nick Hegdes - Guardian

Mrs T and her family of five lived in a decaying terraced house owned by a steelworks. She had no gas, no electricity, no hot water, no bathroom. Her cooking was done on the fire in the living room. Sheffield, May 1969.
Photo: Nick Hegdes – Guardian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographer Nick Hedges travelled from Birmingham slums to Glasgow tenements in the 1960s and 70s to document poverty-stricken Britain. He found families who slept with the lights blazing to keep the rats away, children sleeping on wet floors and mothers cooking over an open fire.

Go to: http://www.theguardian.com/slum-britain-in-the-1960s

Encyclopedia Of Urban Studies – Download

UrbanStudiesE. (Earl) Ray Hutchison Encyclopedia of Urban Studies)
Sage Publications, Inc | 2009 | ISBN: 1412914329 | 1080 pages | File type: PDF | 16 mb

The United Nations estimates that by 2030, more than two-thirds of the total world population will live in urban areas. Most of this increase will take place not in Europe or in the United States but in the megacities and newly emerging urban regions of what used to be called the developing world.
Urban studies is an expansive and growing field, covering many disciplines and professional fields, each with its own schedule of conferences, journals, and publication series. These two volumes address the specific theories, key studies, and important figures that have influenced not just the individual discipline but also the field of urban studies more generally. The Encyclopedia of Urban Studies is intended to present an overview of current work in the field and to serve as a guide for further reading in the field.

Go to: http://www.ebook3000.com/Encyclopedia-of-Urban-Studies

Julia Pollak – Community-Driven Development: How the Poor Can Take Charge To Improve Their Housing

Photo: www.rand.org

Photo: www.rand.org

Public housing projects have been controversial for decades in countries around the world. They have been seen as a potential remedy to housing inequality, providing a guaranteed minimum standard of living. While some developments have achieved a degree of success, others have earned bad reputations for worsening segregation, social tension, unemployment, violence, and drug use. A common complaint against even the more successful projects is that residents get little effective say about their design.

A close look at an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa, could serve as a guide for other countries experimenting with community-driven development, an alternative approach to public housing.

Community-driven development (PDF), which has gained traction since the 1990s, has largely abandoned the housing aims of equality and standardization. Under this approach, control over development decisions and resources goes directly to the people who potentially will be living in the housing. These citizens identify community priorities. They organize to address local problems as partners with local governments and other organizations. Such projects are emerging in Cape Verde, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Brazil, Indonesia, Azerbaijan, Benin, and Morocco. The result is considerable variety, as community-driven housing becomes as diverse as the personalities of those driving them. The hope, of course, is that the best developments will be scaled up and their recipes for success will be shared, serving as useful guides for other communities.

Read more: http://www.rand.org/community-driven-development

Coby Joseph – Friday Fun: Watch Urban Growth Unfold In These Amazing Visualizations From Cities Worldwide


cityfix.com. September 2014. The NYU Stern Urbanization Project has created a number of fascinating time-lapse videos showing urban land use in different cities from the 1800s through to 2000. These videos strikingly depict the well-evidenced trend of urban growth, both in population and land area. By 2050, 66% of the world’s population is expected to live in urban areas. While urbanization can have a number of benefits, if not controlled, it can also lead to costly urban sprawl. In some expanding cities, land use is expected to grow at about double the rate of the population. The Urbanization Project’s visualizations give context to the challenge of urbanization and land use as cities plan for the next century of growth and development.

Read & see more: http://thecityfix.com/watch-urban-growth

Antipode – Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 857–1133

ANTI_centreAims and Scope
Antipode is an academic journal but also more than this. It publishes peer review essays on geographical issues such as place, space, landscape, scale, human- environment relations, uneven development, boundaries, borders and connections. These essays further the analytical and political goals of a broad-based Left-wing geography. The perspective can be Marxist, post-Marxist, feminist, anti-racist, queer, anarchist or green. Antipode also publishes short commentaries (Interventions) and book reviews and review symposia. The journal funds an annual postgraduate scholarship and sponsors annual lectures at major international geography conferences. Recent speakers include Tariq Ali, David Harvey, Gill Hart, Eric Sheppard, Doreen Massey, Ray Hudson, Bob Jessop and Gerry Pratt.

In addition to publishing academic papers, Antipode publishes short polemical interventions and longer, more reflective explorations of radical geography in particular fields or locations. The journal has an Interventions section, publishes special issues and book issues, and publishes book review symposia as well as normal book reviews. The journal also undertakes wider activities in the service of geographically-informed Left-wing analysis and politics, such as Summer Institutes and the warding of annual graduate scholarships.

• Essential reading for critical social scientists
• Publishes cutting-edge radical theory and research
• The only left-wing journal dedicated to exploring the geographical constitution of power and resistance
• Explores how space, place, border, scale and landscape both shape and are shaped by unequal social relations.

Read more: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/anti.v46.4/


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