Africa’s Youth And Conflicts: A Sub-Saharan Spring?

Recent travels to Chad, Cameroon and Mali confronted me with the conflicts in these countries as well as in the Central African Republic, and the youth’s involvement in them. How are we as researchers to analyse the conflicts and protests, what questions and fields of study should we explore? Are we observing a Sub-Saharan spring?

Opposed youth groups in CAR
In Cameroon I worked on a project with researchers from CAR. Since 2013 CAR has entered a new cycle of violence. Seleka and anti-Balaka are opposed groups of mainly youth who fight in a rhythm of vengeance. The government controls the capital city Bangui, but other parts of the country are under control of the diverse ‘rebel’ groups. Both sides are mainly filled with young (wo)men.

Salaries cut in Chad
In Chad I met young men who had just been released from prison where they had been tortured on accusation of disturbing the order. Since January this year Chad has entered a new period of protests and strikes. It was not acceptable for most people that salaries were cut by half and indemnities were not paid. Families could no longer pay for the school fees of their children and some families could only afford one meal a day. It was another period of scarcity in a long sequence of protests in, what is in fact, bankrupt Chad since November 2015. Youth are raising their fists against the regime, but they have little power as the oppression is far more powerful. Since a month now the internet has been cut down again. (This research done in Chad from 2014 to now about youth movements/hardship gives more insight.)

Read more: http://www.ascleiden.nl/mirjam-de-bruijn/africas-youth-and-conflicts-sub-saharan-spring

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Indigenous Oral Traditions From The Huasteca, Mexico

This paper deals with indigenous oral traditions in Mexico. It addresses issues of indigenous languages and how they can be documented, preserved and revitalized through projects about oral traditions in a national context in which there is a renewed discussion on multiculturalism and cross-cultural understanding.
In Mexico, the discussion of multiculturalism centers on ‘indigenous issues’, specifically on how indigenous peoples should integrate into the so-called modern, more westerly-orientated rest of the nation. In Mexico, indigenous cultures and languages are still systematically discriminated, as they are often seen as irrelevant remnants of a past that have, at most, mere folkloristic value. Since the 1990’s, public policies regarding indigenous issues underwent a change and now focus on concepts of multiculturalism in order to favor a more equal position for indigenous languages and cultures.

The new policies were adopted after national pressures like the 1994 Zapatista uprising, and followed up on international interests in the situation of indigenous peoples, such as shown through the festivities around the 500th Anniversary of the Discovery of America by Columbus in 1992, or in the declaration of the UN’s First and Second Decade of the Indigenous Peoples (1995-2014). They enhance a novel discourse that includes concepts like cultural diversity, interculturalism, intangible heritage, and other terms that are in accordance with the terminology of international conventions on indigenous issues.

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Journal Of Anthropological Films

Film cameras, video and sound recorders have for decades been used by anthropologists as research tools, for collecting data, for documentation, for advocacy, for representing a case or a group of people, for disseminating empirical insights and for communicating research findings. For the first time in the history of Visual Anthropology anthropological film can now be published on par with written articles, assessed by peers, and inscribed in international credential systems of academic publication as the Nordic Anthropological Film Association (NAFA) has launched this first edition of Journal of Anthropological Films (JAF)

Go to: http://boap.uib.no/index.php/jaf/index

Editorial

The Nordic Anthropological Film Association (NAFA) has launched the Journal of Anthropological Films (JAF)

Film cameras, video and sound recorders have for decades been used by anthropologists as research tools, for collecting data, for documentation, for advocacy, for representing a case or a group of people, for disseminating empirical insights and for communicating research findings. For the first time in the history of Visual Anthropology anthropological film can now be published on par with written articles, assessed by peers, and inscribed in international credential systems of academic publication as the Nordic Anthropological Film Association (NAFA) has launched this first edition of Journal of Anthropological Films (JAF) published by Bergen Open Access Publishing (BOAP).

JAF publishes films that combine documentation with a narrative and aesthetic convention of cinema to communicate an anthropological understanding of a given cultural and social reality. JAF publishes films that stand alone as a complete scientific publication based on research that explore the relationship between “contemporary anthropological understandings of the world, visual and sensory perception, art and aesthetics, and the ways in which aural and visual media may be used to develop and represent those understandings” to borrow words from Paul Henley (in Flores, American Anthropologist, Vol 111, No.1, 2009:95). While most films will stand for themselves, only accompanied by an abstract, supplementary text will be accepted when it adds productively to the anthropological analysis and in case the peer-reviewers will ask for it. Read more

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Health Communication In Southern Africa: Engaging With Social And Cultural Diversity

Contents

Introduction: Health Communication In Southern Africa; Engaging With Social And Cultural Diversity – Luuk Lagerwerf, , Henk Boer & Herman Wasserman (Eds.)

Part I: Individual And Social Network Factors
1. Condom Use In Tanzania And Zambia: A Study On The Predictive Power Of The Theory Of Planned Behaviour On Condom Use – Merel Groenenboom, Julia van Weert, & Bas van der Putte
– 2. Using Social Network Information To Design Effective Health Campaigns To Address HIV In Namibia – Rachel A. Smith
– 3. Social Capital And Communication On HIV Prevention With Young Adolescents In Kayamandi Township, South Africa – Henk Boer & Tessa A. Custers

Part II: Social Representations and Entertainment Education
– 4. The Portrayao Of HIV/AIDS In Lesotho Print Media: Fragmented Narratives And Untold Stories – Cecilia Strand
– 5. Social Representations Of HIV/AIDS In South Africa and Zambia: Lessons For Health Communication – John-Eudes Lengwe Kunda & Keyan G. Tomaselli
– 6. Edutainment Television Programmes: Tackling HIV/AIDS On The South African Broadcasting Corporation – Viola C. Milton
– 7. Edutainment Radio Programmes: The Importance Of Culturally Relevant Stories – Mia Malan

Part III: Patient Information
– 8. Using Pictograms In A Patient Information Leaflet To Communicate Antiretroviral Medicines Information To HIV/AIDS Patients In South Africa – Ros Dowse.
– 9. Understanding Motion In Static Pictures: How Do Low- Educated South Africans Evaluate Arrows In Health-Related Pictures? – Hanneke Hoogwegt, Alfons A. Maes & Carel H. van Wijk.
– 10. ‘Come, Let Me Show You’: The Use Of Props To Facilitate Communication Of Antiretroviral Dosage Instructions In Multilingual Pharmacy Interactions – Jennifer Watermeyer & Claire Penn.
– 11. Understanding South African Patient Information Leaflets: Readability And Cultural Competence – Daleen Krige & Johann C. De Wet.

Part IV: Supporting People: Practical Approaches To HIV/AIDS Communication
Individual and Social Network Factors
– 12. An Aids Awareness Programme In A Rural Area Of South Africa To Promote Participation In Voluntary Counselling And Testing – Hugo Tempelman & Adri Vermeer.

Patient Information
– 13. The Employment Of HIV Positive Young People For Health Promotion In Higher Education: A Case Studiy Of The Dramaide Health Promoters Project, South Africa – Emma Durden.
– 14. Cell Phones For Health In South Africa – Tanja E. Bosch. Read more

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Health Communication In Southern Africa: Engaging With Social And Cultural Diversity ~ Introduction

Introduction
A focus on Southern Africa as an area where more and better HIV/AIDS communication is needed cannot be better underlined than by recent figures on adults living with HIV (15-49 years): In Sub-Saharan Africa the figure stands at 11%, whereas the global percentage is 3.25% (UNAIDS, 2008). The rise in these figures over recent years can partly be accounted for by the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, which means that statistically people living with HIV have a higher life expectancy.

Still, 67% of the global HIV prevalence in 2007 was accounted for by Sub-Saharan Africa, as was 72% of the global AIDS deaths (UNAIDS, 2008). The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southern Africa affects women more than men (60% of people living with HIV were female in Southern Africa in 2007; UNAIDS, 2008), especially regarding HIV prevalence among youth. It is within this context that this book wants to consider the role that health communication may play in combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Positive outcomes of health communication
How can health communication benefit the fight against HIV/AIDS? This positive influence may apply at different levels. Communication is an important part of prevention campaigns like in the case of the ABC (Abstinence, Be faithful, use Condoms) motto, which could contribute to a decline in HIV infections. Since the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southern Africa typically affects women more adversely than men, gender relations form an important contextual dimension of health communication. Prevention messages have to be reinforced by the empowerment of women, enabling them to change their vulnerable position in sexual relations and negotiations.

Prevention and treatment go hand in hand and both aspects should be addressed in health communication. Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) is a desirable outcome for several reasons. If people are infected they can get treatment and guidance. The spreading of infections may be controlled by more knowledgeable and responsible behaviour by HIV-infected people. Being more open about VCT might also change the perceptions of people living with HIV. Health communication can take the form of campaigns for better drug regimens and adequate state support. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) need to take antiretroviral medicine to avoid AIDS, and their Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) compliance might be improved by good instruction and motivation. New media technologies have created opportunities to develop support networks for social movements and non-governmental organisations working to ensure better access to anti-retroviral medicines for PLWA.

The best-known example of such a network in Southern Africa is the one built around the group Treatment Action Campaign (Berger, 2006; Wasserman, 2005). The portrayal of PLWA may be changed in a more positive direction. Mass media and government policies need to be analyzed critically to detect and change negative or undesirable social representations of HIV/AIDS, or of individuals or groups associated with the disease. Health communication may serve to counter stereotyping, vilification or marginalisation of PLWA in sections of society who are seen as undeserving of state support, e.g. prisoners, migrants, asylum seekers, or sex workers (Berger, 2006). Read more

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Health Communication In Southern Africa: Condom Use in Tanzania and Zambia: A Study on the Predictive Power of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on Condom Use Intention

Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine determinants of condom use intention of Tanzanian and Zambian high-school students. Additionally, we aim to investigate whether determinants differ among different target (sub)groups. Data were gathered in a sample of high school students from Arusha area, Tanzania (n = 286), and Kabwe area, Zambia (n = 272). The TPB determinants attitude towards condom use and subjective norm explain, respectively, 15.5% and 16.5% of the variance in condom use intention in Tanzania and Zambia, while self-efficacy is not significantly related to this intention in both countries. In most target (sub)groups from Tanzania and Zambia, the same TPB determinants predict condom use intention. Besides the TPB determinants, other variables are significantly related to condom use intention, such as sexual experience and gender. These results vary over the (sub)groups.

The findings of this study prove the utility and global applicability of the TPB on condom use intention in Tanzania and Zambia. Because most subgroups in both countries show the same TPB determinants of condom use intention, cost-effective overall HIV/AIDS prevention programmes can be developed that can easily be adapted for different subgroups in different countries.

Introduction
AIDS (Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome), caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), is one of the most threatening diseases worldwide (UNAIDS, 2007). Sub-Saharan Africa, the area of Africa south of the Sahara desert, is the most affected region in the world, with AIDS being the leading cause of death in this area. Because relatively little is done on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, it is expected that the number of infected people and deaths will rise (UNAIDS, 2007).

HIV infection is often a consequence of a specific behaviour, one of which is unsafe sex (Fishbein, 2000). While condom availability has risen in Sub-Saharan Africa, there are many factors that keep people from using them (AVERT, 2007). Therefore, most HIV/AIDS prevention programmes aim at increasing the use of condoms in order to decrease the risk of infection and restrict the AIDS-epidemic (Bennett & Bozionelos, 2000).

Theoretically, scientific knowledge can contribute to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. While some studies found that behaviour change interventions that were explicitly based on theory were not more effective than prevention programmes without a theoretical basis (see Hardeman et al., 2002, for a review), other research showed a higher effectiveness of prevention programmes based on scientific literature (Fishbein, 2000; Gredig, Nideroest & Parpan-Blaser, 2006; Jemmott et al., 2007; Munoz-Silva, Sanchez-Garciá, Nunes & Martins, 2007). A commonly used behavioural model in scientific studies is Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991). According to the TPB, behaviour is best predicted by asking people whether they have the intention to show this specific behaviour. In turn, behavioural intention is determined by attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. The current study on condom use intention in Tanzania and Zambia used the TPB as a theoretical foundation. Until now, a couple of studies on condom use intention applying the TPB have been conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of these were carried out in South Africa (Boer & Mashamba, 2007; Bryan, Kagee & Broaddus, 2006; Giles, Liddell & Bydawell, 2005; Jemmott et al., 2007). No studies using the TPB were conducted in Zambia yet, and only one study is available on Tanzania (Lugoe & Rise, 1999). The current study was carried out in Zambia and Tanzania to examine whether the results of studies conducted in South Africa are also valid for other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study is to examine determinants of condom use intention of Tanzanian and Zambian high-school students. Furthermore, the following subgroups will be compared to identify TPB determinants of intended condom use among specific target groups: males and females, students with and without a steady boy/girlfriend, and students with and without sexual experience. Subgroup analyzes to investigate whether the relation of attitude towards condom use, subjective norm, and selfefficacy to intention varies among specific target groups have hardly been reported in African studies. The research questions are:

* What are the differences between Tanzanian and Zambian high-school students in condom use intention, attitude towards condom use, subjective norm, and self-efficacy?
* What are the determinants of condom use intention of Tanzanian and Zambian high-school students?
* What are the determinants of condom use intention of males and females, students with and without a steady boy/girlfriend, and students with and without sexual experience? Read more

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