Overseas Territories Review


A forum for critical analysis of international issues and developments of particular relevance to the sustainable political and socio-economic development of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs).

Go to: http://overseasreview.blogspot.nl/

Bonaire: http://overseasreview.blogspot.nl/search/label/Bonaire

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How China Studies Started In The Dutch East Indies


zegelLeiden University has traditionally been the seat of knowledge about South and Southeast Asia. Every year many students graduate here in the languages and cultures of China, Japan and Korea.

Sinologists
But how did this knowledge come to Leiden? To find the answer we have to go back to the Dutch East Indies, Koos Kuiper explains. His PhD defence on 16 February is based on an extensive archive and literature study of the early Dutch sinologists – or China experts.

As early as the colonial period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese people lived in the Dutch East Indies. They played an important role in the economy and indirectly swelled the koffers of the Dutch treasury. This also earned them some privileges. For example, the Chinese were to a certain degree governed by their own elders, and the Chinese council was responsible for registering marriages and funerals, and also dealt with minor civil and penal cases among the Chinese inhabitants.

Read more: https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/dutch-east-indies

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Pieter van Dam’s Beschryvinge van de Oostindische Compagnie 1693-1701


DamVOCUitgegeven door F.W. Stapel en C.W.Th. baron van Boetzelaer van Asperen en Dubbeldam (jaar van publicatie: 1927-1954)

Pieter van Dam (1621-1706), advocaat van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), kreeg in 1693 van Heren Zeventien de opdracht een handleiding en naslagwerk samen te stellen van de VOC vanaf het ontstaan tot dan toe. Van Dam is er in geslaagd een geschiedwerk te schrijven waarin het reilen en zeilen van de VOC uitgebreid wordt geschetst, gestaafd met vele bronverwijzingen.

Hij behandelt achtereenvolgens de oprichting van de VOC, het bedrijf en de verkoop van de Aziatische producten in Europa; de ontwikkeling van de handel in Azië en het veroveren en besturen van de gebieden aldaar; de bestuursorganen, rechtspraak, leger en vloot in Azië; Nederlandse volksplantingen en allerlei misbruiken; kerkelijke zaken. Het niet meer aanwezige vijfde boek schetste de geschillen met de Engelsen.

Op het gebied van de gewenste bronnenpublicaties van de overzeese geschiedenis noemde de Commissie van Advies voor ‘s Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën in 1902 Van Dams Beschryvinge van de Oostindische Compagnieals eerste . De Beschryvinge bevat bijzonderheden die nergens anders meer te vinden zijn. Het werk is nuttig als beginpunt voor een onderzoek met betrekking tot de VOC in de 17e eeuw. Het was uitsluitend bestemd voor Heren Zeventien waardoor Van Dam zich niet gedwongen voelde zaken te verzwijgen of goed te praten.

Ten behoeve van het onderzoek in VOC-archieven is op basis van de afzonderlijke glossaria (woordverklaringen) van de uitgaven over de VOC in de RGP een algemeen VOC-glossarium samengesteld dat online raadpleegbaar is.

Ga naar de digitale versie: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vocbeschrijvingvandam

Zie ook: Bronnen, data en toolshttps://www.huygens.knaw.nl/tools-en-data/
Het Huygens ING streeft ernaar bronnen en data op een zorgvuldige en wetenschappelijk verantwoorde wijze online te publiceren. Innovatieve tools proberen we zo toegankelijk mogelijk te maken. We hebben een enorme hoeveelheid aan kennis in huis, die we graag willen delen met academische collega’s en het bredere publiek.

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John Jansen van Galen ~ Afscheid van de koloniën. Het Nederlandse dekolonisatiebeleid 1942-2010


JansenvanGalenDekolonisatie is het tegenovergestelde van kolonisatie. Kolonisatie is de vestiging van mensen en/of kapitaal op vreemd, buitenlands grondgebied. Wanneer daar uitoefening van macht over dat gebied en zijn bevolking op volgt, is er sprake van kolonialisme. Dit is volgens Rupert Emerson ‘het vestigen en voor langere tijd handhaven van heerschappij over een vreemd volk dat gescheiden is van en ondergeschikt aan de overheersende macht’. (1) Of, in de omschrijving van Maarten Kuitenbrouwer, ‘het doelgerichte en daadwerkelijke streven naar de vestiging van formele of informele heerschappij over een andere samenleving’. (2) Heerschappij, het uitoefenen van macht, over een ander volk maakt in deze definities het wezen van kolonialisme uit. Paul Kennedy beschrijft het begrip aan de hand van een aantal andere kenmerken, maar de meeste daarvan zijn niet onderscheidend omdat ze ook buiten koloniale situaties voorkomen: het bestaan van een kleurbarrière, economische afhankelijkheid, geringe sociale zorg voor het volk, gebrek aan sociaal contact tussen overheersers en overheersten. (3) Een raciaal verschil tussen de betrokken volkeren, dat ook wel als kenmerk genoemd wordt, is evenmin wezenlijk voor kolonialisme: zo waren Canada, Australië en IJsland wel koloniën van respectievelijk Engeland en Denemarken, maar in hoofdzaak door blanken bevolkt. Alleen politieke ondergeschiktheid van een gebied en zijn bevolking aan een buitenlandse, overzeese mogendheid onderscheidt het kolonialisme van andere politieke systemen.

Volledige proefschrift(PDF): http://www.atlascontact.nl/jansen-van-galen-proefschrift.pdf

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Political Capitalism, Overseas Trade And Ethnic Diversity


map-moluccas-aa-1707The aim of this paper is to remind modern researchers studying modern, post-Soeharto Indonesia of the research on the history of political capitalism in Asia, including the Indonesian Archipelago done by the Dutch scholar Van Leur. While preparing his well known thesis on the Asian Trade system, he concluded that the Indonesian island group has a bipartite geopolitical structure. This structure consists of a maritime zone of sea routes and coastal urban centres dominated by local and interregional political capitalism, and a peripheral part that stands partly on its own and is in part connected to the first zone. The question he asked was why the Asian type of political trade capitalism had been able to survive for such a long time and had even had been continued by the V.O.C., while in Europe this form of capitalism had long disappeared.
Today these questions once again become interesting as we become progressively aware that, on both the national and the regional level, the Soeharto regime that fell in 1998 was fuelled by a type of political capitalism that came close to what had existed during pre-colonial and early colonial times. And thus the question of the continuity of political capitalism returns to the agenda of modern Asia research.

In the introduction I pointed out that Indonesia’s recent ethnic tensions occurred especially in the coastal cities and coastal areas where Indonesia’s strategic resources are located, and not to any great degree in the interiors of the major islands. In the course of Indonesia’s long history, many ethnic groups have evidently settled in and around the coastal cities, where they live together. This geographical curiosity has its roots in Indonesia’s past as an international emporium and trade port in the overseas trade between India en China, as well as at certain times between Asia and Europe. This trade needed ports of call [i] under the control and protection of local rulers. These rulers allowed foreigners [ii] that contributed to the settlement’s trade to settle in their own wards with their own heads and courts. These wards had a certain measure of diplomatic immunity, turning the ports of call into places with an international population. In this context, foreign businessmen and traders became the driving force behind maritime Asia’s coastal economy. The geographical position of the urban settlements in the archipelago and their mixed populations has not fundamentally changed in the past two thousand years, as is evident from maps 1 through 2.
The question that arises from this historical continuity is whether the underlying political and economic systems have remained unchanged as well. The answer is partly yes and partly not. Partly yes, because, as will become clear in this chapter, the central organizing factor behind the distribution of coastal cities and ethnic communities has been political capitalism, both then and now[iii]. Partly not, because the modern form of political capitalism in Asia, to wit the nationalistic side of the modern nation-state, subjects everything within its borders to its authority and mistrusts foreign businesses and capital because of their excessive power in the world-markets and their danger to the domestic market. Read more

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Professional Blindness And Missing The Mark ~ The Historical Analysis Of Four Major Crises During The First Two Decades Of The Republic Of Indonesia


OmslagHoltzappel

Within a few days we will begin publishing Professional Blindness And Missing The Mark ~ The Historical Analysis Of Four Major Crises During The First Two Decades Of The Republic Of Indonesia. The paperback edition will be available in the beginning of 2015 (EHV Academicpress – Bremen).

This book contains six captivating articles about decisive moments in the first two decennia of the Republic of Indonesia’s existence (1945-1965); one per chapter with an introduction. They were presented at the memorial in honor of Professor dr. Wim Wertheim’s centennial birthday in 2008 – the doyen of post-war Dutch Indonesia research.

Each chapter explores a significant event from that era and was written by experienced researchers – Mary van Delden, Saskia Wieringa, Ben White, Pieter Drooglever and Coen Holtzappel – making use of source material that for the most part has been neglected by previous research. The analyses of the material reveal the new Republic’s struggle to bring together, and keep together, the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in one independent and productive Republic of Indonesia. The foundation of a domestically, across the archipelago, and internationally accepted national government, as well as obedient regional governments and obliging armed forces, were deciding factors in this struggle.

Violent confrontations between armed forces and the communist party PKI took place in 1948 during the Indonesian National Revolution, as well as in 1965 after the Republic had already been independent for 14 years. The dividing issue was the power balance between politics and army top in state, government and land. A rigorous break with the past was made in 1965, which saw the installation of a junta regime under the leadership of General Soeharto that stayed in place for the following 32 years. Democracy had to wait until the army top made sure every part of politics and armed forces was finely adapted to work with the other. Not until then would the clock of government, production and control be fully set.

The articles reveal a blind spot in Western research of Indonesian developments in the discussed period; research that from 1965 onward was further, and permanently, influenced by the Indonesian army’s view. The Cold War raged domestically as well as abroad.

CONTENTS
Coen Holtzappel – Preface
Mary van Delden – Internees from the Republic
Coen Holtzappel – The year 1948 and the Madiun affairs, a year of cheat and rumours
Pieter Drooglever – Papua Nationalism. Another blind spot
Coen Holtzappel – The Thirtieth September Movement of 1965, as viewed by the perpetrators – Part One
Coen Holtzappel – The Thirtieth September Movement of 1965, as viewed by the perpetrators – Part Two
Coen Holtzappel – The Thirtieth September Movement of 1965, as viewed by the perpetrators – Part Three
Saskia Eleonora Wieringa – Sexual Slander And The 1965/66 Mass Killings In Indonesia: Political And Methodological Considerations
Ben White – The anthropologist’s blind spot: Clifford Geertz on class, killings and communists in Indonesia
Coen Holtzappel & Pieter Drooglever – Postscript
About the authors

 

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