From the Web – The Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET)

crisisThe Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) was created to broaden and accelerate the development of new economic thinking that can lead to solutions for the great challenges of the 21st century.
The havoc wrought by our recent global financial crisis has vividly demonstrated the deficiencies in our outdated current economic theories, and shown the need for new economic thinking – right now.

INET is supporting this fundamental shift in economic thinking through research funding, community building, and spreading the word about the need for change. We already are a global community of thousands of new economic thinkers, ranging from Nobel Prize winning economists to teachers and students who have emerged out from the shadows of prevailing economic thought, attracted by the promise of a free and open economic discourse.

Read more: http://ineteconomics.org/

 

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Awareness Is Power: Tactics For Staying Safe In Violent Spaces

Unfinished Structure – Photo by author

Violence is everywhere (Lindiwe, Hector Peterson Residence).

In order to understand the concept ‘awareness’, Hastrup’s (1995) explanation of consciousness is invaluable, especially to identify with people’s behaviour in violent situations. She explains that our patterns of thinking are not subject to paths of practical reason, but that we rather constantly reformulate our whole existence through our actions; a reconsideration of our ideas of consciousness is thus necessitated (ibid.: 99). Hastrup reminds us that we are inarticulate and that expression is not limited to the verbal. Expression, rather, takes place in various forms (ibid.).

Given Hastrup’s suggestion to understand consciousness from multiple angles, we approach a field within which questions of ontology and methodology join: how do people think and how do we know? (ibid.; Ross 2004: 35). What tools should anthropologists use to access these forms of consciousness that are so intertwined in social space, affecting it, being affected by it and being its defining capacity? In an environment of violence, students are affected, they can potentially have an influence on this through the tactics they use to stay safe and, at the same time, can become the defining capacity of such an environment. These are among the dynamics involved in conceptualising ‘awareness’ of potential danger in potentially dangerous areas. This awareness is positioned on various levels.

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Efficacy of Tourism as a Tool for Local Community Development: A Case Study of Mombassa, Kenya

Mombassa Market Hall

Having unique indigenous cultures, nature-based attractions, beautiful landscapes, and pleasant weather conditions, local communities in Africa, and other Third World countries, are increasingly being promoted and marketed in major tourist generating countries, particularly in Europe and North America, as offering immense touristic and recreational opportunities. Particularly, indigenous communities in the Third World are perceived as providing abundant opportunities for rich tourists from the North who have got the financial resources to spend in adventure and exotic recreational activities. As a consequence, an increasing number of international tourists are travelling to different tourist destinations in Africa and other less developed regions of the world. In 2001 for instance, over 28 million international tourists, mainly from Europe and North America, travelled to different destinations in Africa. It is further estimated that with the current international growth rate of the tourism industry, over 77 million international tourists will visit Africa by the year 2020 (WTO 2004).

Neo-classical economists and development experts contend that unlike factor driven technology based development, local communities in Africa and other parts of the Third World have a comparative advantage in the development of tourism and other non-technology based economic sectors. The development of tourism amongst local communities is, therefore, perceived as fitting quite well with the ‘natural process of development based on comparative advantage’ (Brohman 1996). This argument is based on the premise that local communities, particularly in Africa, should mainly specialise in primary exports, including tourism, where they have comparative advantage rather than depending on technology based economic sectors that do not conform with the principles of comparative advantage in the global market demand.

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Walking Stories

Cover 'Walking Stories'Lisa, a fragile Indonesian woman, walked along the paths of Saint Anthony’s park. Saint Anthony is a mental hospital. Lisa was dressed in red, yellow and blue; I was looking at a painting of Mondriaan, of which the colours could cheer someone up on a grey Dutch day. She had put on all her clothes and she carried the rest of her belongings in a grey garbagebag. She looked like she was being hunted, mumbling formulas to avert the evil or the devils. I could not understand her words, but she repeated them with the rustling of her garbage bag on the pebbles of the path.

When she arrived at an intersection of two paths where low rose hips were blossoming, she stopped and went into the bushes. She lifted all her skirts and urinated; standing as a colourful flower amidst the green of the bushes and staring into the sky. A passer-by from the village where Saint Anthony’s has its headquarters would probably have pretended not to see her, knowing that Lisa was one of the ‘chronic mental patients’ of the wards. Or, urinating so openly in the park may be experienced as a ‘situational improperty’, but as many villagers told me: ‘They do odd things, but they cannot help it.’ The passer-by would not have known that Lisa was a ‘walking story’, that she had ritualised her walks in order to control the powers that lie beyond her control. Lisa was diagnosed with ‘schizophrenia’ and she suffered from delusions. When she had an acute psychosis, she needed medication to relieve her anxiety. Her personal story was considered as a symptom of her illness. That was, in a nutshell, the story of the psychiatrists of the mental hospital. Her own story was different. Lisa was the queen of the Indies and she had to have offspring to ensure that her dynasty would be preserved. She believed at that day that she was pregnant and that the magicians would come and would take away her unborn baby with a needle. To prevent the abortion, she had to take refuge in the park and carry all her belongings with her.

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De toekomst van de relatie Nederland – Suriname IV: De hulprelatie sinds 1975

Suriname1. Inleiding
Vanaf 1975 zou de omvang en de wijze van besteding van ontwikkelingshulp alsmede de migratie vanuit Suriname de relatie tussen beide landen blijven bepalen. Over de besteding van de hulp ontstond al spoedig een officiële verhouding waarin oud zeer, achterdocht, wrevel en wrok de toonzetting bepaalden. De zich consoliderende diaspora aan beide zijden van de oceaan werd de bron van een hartelijke verhouding tussen elkaar steunende familieleden, tot uitdrukking komend in een constante stroom overmakingen en aanhoudend transatlantisch familiebezoek. De eigenaardige combinatie van hartelijke familiebanden en een stroeve hulprelatie bepaalt tot op de dag van vandaag de omgang tussen beide landen.

Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de ontwikkelingsrelatie zoals die zich heeft ontwikkeld sinds 1975 en beoogt een evaluatie te presenteren van de economische, maatschappelijke en politieke repercussies van deze bijzondere, langdurige en omvattende bilaterale en overwegend intergouvernementele hulprelatie, Sectie 2 gaat in op de onderhandelings- en uitvoeringscultuur waarbinnen hulpprojecten en programma’s werden geformuleerd en vorm kregen. Sectie 3 presenteert een balans van de resultaten die werden bereikt en onderscheidt daarbij een groot aantal van de belangrijkste projecten en programma’s die gedurende deze lange periode tot stand werden gebracht. Sectie 4 geeft aan op welke wijze de bilaterale relatie zich ontwikkelde tot een belaste relatie, en wat daar de kenmerken en uiteindelijke gevolgen van zijn geweest. Tenslotte wordt in Sectie 5 naar de toekomst gekeken.  Read more

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De toekomst van de relatie Nederland – Suriname V: De verdragsrelatie in een breder perspectief

Suriname1. Inleiding
De resultaten van de samenwerking tussen Nederland en Suriname worden vaak geïsoleerd beoordeeld, zonder in beschouwing te nemen welke ontwikkelingen zich in dezelfde tijd elders voordeden. Dit stuk plaats de samenwerking in een breder kader en komt met nuanceringen op de soms harde oordelen die over de hulp worden geveld. In Sectie 2 wordt ingegaan op het bijzondere karakter van de bilaterale verdragsrelatie in vergelijking met de meer gangbare wijze waarop internationaal en ook door Nederland hulprelaties worden aangegaan. Belangrijke component van de bilaterale hulprelatie is het beleidsoverleg, dat mede een weerspiegeling is van achterliggende trends in het denken over ontwikkelingsvraagstukken en ontwikkelingsbeleid, zoals wordt uiteengezet in Sectie 3. Conditionaliteiten spelen in veel hulpprogramma’s een cruciale rol en zijn vaak onderwerp van controverse en conflict. Sectie 4 maakt onderscheidt tussen ex-ante– en ex-post-conditionaliteiten en zet de daaraan verbonden consequenties voor de hulprelatie uiteen. Het project PARWAT in Paramaribo dient ter illustratie daarvan. Sectie 5 gaat in op het rapport Een belaste relatie en plaatst daar een aantal nuanceringen bij. Tenslotte wordt in de laatste sectie een suggestie gedaan voor toekomstige samenwerking. Read more

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