Allegories Of Wildness ~ A Final Summation

The awful unfolding scene of the future
It is difficult to predict the future. After completing work on the three Nambikwara peoples above I decided to try to establish a few parameters and attempt to limit the scope of what future scenarios may come into play. This brings to mind the volumes of memoirs written by Sir Winston Churchill on his participation in the tremendous and costly events of WWII. Here, only a few years after the appalling events that left so many dead and engendered the reality of the very word genocide, Churchill pondered what way, exactly, his experience could aid in avoiding human tragedy. He believed that he did not write history, that was the work of a future generation, instead his goal was to make “(…) a contribution to history which will be of service for the future” (Churchill 1964a: preface; orig. 1948).His account offers a fascinating inside view of a war that brought entire nations into servitude and threatened the existence of a sovereign Great Britain. Many European countries suffered from the Nazi occupation and domination of their lands and, in reality, their attendant transformation into German colonies. Churchill, and according to his account, the entire British people, were determined even at the most difficult time of the War in the mid-1940s to continue the fight and never to surrender and accept the loss of freedom. This utter resolve, he clearly affirmed, is a matter of sentiment and values, not merely the expression of any kind of material interests. The feelings of the subjugated peoples and the indomitable spirit for their liberty as a free British people of these times show the force of ideas and values related to ethnic self-determination. I suggest that simply by transposing this historical experience, the author and these European peoples should appreciate the longing for autonomy and admire the resistance and resilience of the Nambikwara peoples whose histories are discussed in this book. The fact is, many people do appreciate this and these are the people who pressured governments to act in accordance with their professed values and insure that laws are obeyed. Of course, the ethnocentric values of civilization and progress in the pre-eminent evolutionary framework conflict with other values and by attributing primitiveness and backwardness to indigenous peoples that, for many people and all governments, justify the suspension of their own pre-eminent notion of self-determination. The Nambikwara congeries and other subjugated peoples think otherwise. These peoples have their own goals and plans for the future.

History is shaped by the unfolding of intersecting multiple causalities and the permanent, simultaneous occurrence of a multifold contingencies and accidents. Human history is both determined and indeterminate by structural causes and open to human agency. The present shapes the future but the scene of the future remains fundamentally open-ended and obscured, especially for the embedded participant. “The veils of the future are lifted one by one, and mortals must live from day to day” (Churchill 1964b: 209). In prospective, science, the main crux that needs to be ascertained is the weight to be attached to the diverse factors contributing to permanence (structural continuity), or transformation (structural change). The larger issue at stake here can hardly be addressed and the particular prospects for the different Nambikwara peoples have already been outlined above. Still a few additional remarks are required. Continuing along the lines of Churchill’s experience, he recounted that before the War, in 1932, he had an opportunity to meet Hitler in Germany, an encounter suggested by a man who was likely the German leader’s emissary. During Churchill’s conversations with this man, he expressed his astonishment about Hitler’s policy towards the Jews. He said he understood such posture if any Jew had done wrong, committed treason, or wanted “(…) to monopolize power in any walk of life; but what is the sense of being against a man simply because of his birth? How can any man help how he is born?’”(Churchill 1964a: 71). True enough, this issue addresses the fundamental question of deprecating and hating all people of a certain social category owing purely to their classification and identification as a certain people. The intermediary must have relayed this doubt, and Hitler apparently considered this sufficient reason to cancel the appointment. In this way the two future enemies never met face-to-face. Read more

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Allegories of Wildness ~ Bibliography

Bibliography
Abrams, Daniel and Steven Strogatz – 2003 “Modelling the dynamics of language death.” In Nature Vol. 424, 21 August 2003.
Abreu, Regina – 1996 A Fabricação do Imortal. Memória, História a Estratégias de consagração no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: LAPA/Rocco.
Agostinho, Pedro – 1996 “Os Nambikwara en 1975: transferências e situação.” In S. B. Magalhães, R. de C. Britto and E. R. de Castro (eds.), Energia na Amazônia, vol.II, Belém: MPEG/UFPA/AUA.
Ahearn, Laura, – 2001 “Language and Agency.” In Annual Review of Anthropology, vol.30.
Albert, Bruce and Alcida Ramos (eds.) – 2002 “Pacificando o branco.” São Paulo: UNESP.
Almeida, Alfredo Wagner B. de – 1991 “O intransitividade da transição. O Estado, os conflitos agrários e a violência na Amazônia”. In P. Léna and A. de Oliveira (eds.), Amazônia, a fronteira agrícola 20 andos depois. Belém: MPEG and ORSTOM.
Almeida, Alfredo Wagner B. de e João P. de Oliveira – 1998 “Demarcação e reafirmação étnica: um ensaio sobre a Funai.” In J.P. de Oliveira (ed.), Indigenismo e territorialização. Poderes, rotinas e saberes coloniais no Brasil comntemporâneo. Contracapa: Rio de Janeiro.
Almeida, Marli Auxiliadora de – 2005 ““Pacificação” dos Bororo Coroado na Província de Mato Grosso. “Guerras e Alianças” (1845-1887).” Paper presented at the XXIII Simpósio Nacional de História, July 2005.
Anzia, L. Caselli – 2005 “Demarcação de Fronteiras na América Meridional no Setecentos, Exploração do Trabalho Indígena e Doenças.” In M. Salomon, J. F. Silva, L. M. Rocha (eds.), Processos de territorialização: Entre a História e a Antropologia. Goiânia: Ed da UCG.
Arruda, Rinaldo – 1998 “Rikbatsa.” In Encyclopedia of Indian Peoples. Instituto Socioambiental: http://www.socioambiental.org/pib/epinglish/rikbatsta/rikbatsa.shtm.
Aspelin,P. – 1975 “External articulation and domestic production: the artifact trade of the Mamaindê of northwestern Mato Grosso, Brazil.” Cornell University dissertation series no. 58.
– 1976 “Nambicuara economic dualism: Lévi-Strauss in the garden, once again.” In Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 132, nr. 1.
– 1978 “Comments by Aspelin.” In Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 134, nr.1.
– 1979a “The Ethnography of Nambicuara Agriculture”. In Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde vol. 135, nr.1.
– 1979b “Food distribution and social bonding among the Mamaindê of Mato Grosso, Brazil.” In Journal of Anthropological Research vol. 35, nr. 3.
– 1983 ““What You Don’t Know , Won’t Hurt You”.” In Cultural Survival Quarterly Issue 6.3.
Avery, Thomas – 1977 “Mamaindê vocal music.” In Ethnomusicology Vol. XXI, nr. 3.
Aytai, Desidério – 1966-7 “As flautas rituais dos Nambikuara.” In Revista de Antropologia vols. 15-6.
– 1981 “Apontamentos sobre o dualismo econômico dos índios Nambikuara.” In Publicações do Museu Municipal de Paulínia, vol.3, no.15.

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The Making Of The Statute Of The European System Of Central Banks ~ Contents & Readers’ Guide

Contents

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1: Introductory Chapter
Zur Thematik – Organization of the book – Methodology and sources – Descriptions of the main documents, committees and historical setting

Chapter 2: Integration Theory, Federalism and Checks and Balances
Integration and transfer of power – Federalism – Checks and balances

PART I
Cluster I (Checks and Balances between the ESCB and the Public Authorities)

Chapter 3: Introduction to Cluster I
Basic Community structure – Independence – Accountability Read more

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The Making Of The Statute Of The European System Of Central Banks ~ Preface

This study explores the genesis of the most important parts of the Statute of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). This genesis and a comparison with the national central bank laws at the time of the drafting of the ESCB Statute can contribute to a better interpretation of the ESCB Statute and therefore a better understanding of the functioning of the ESCB. This is a first study covering in full detail the genesis of the ESCB Statute.

The study also shows the significant influence which the governors of the central banks have had on the design and formulation of the statute by comparing the texts of the Delors Report (April 1989) up till the final outcome of the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) in December 1991. The governors’ text went almost unscathed through the IGC process, especially because the governors had appreciated from the beginning the importance of incorporating checks and balances in the draft ESCB Statute.
The governors knew the European central bank had to be both independent and accountable. This study shows independence and accountability are not opposites, but they are complementary to make for a balanced system of checks and balances. In this sense the study purports to contribute to the increasing amount of literature on central bank independence.
The governors were also careful in designing a balanced internal structure, i.e. they opted for a federal system within which neither the new European Central Bank nor the existing national central banks would be dominant.

To be more specific the study is, like Gaul, divided into three parts: the first covering the ESCB’s external relations, the second covering the intra-system relations between the ECB and the NCBs, and the third covering the internal relations within the Governing Council (i.e. between the Executive Board and the national central bank governors).
The study is based on publicly available documents. Some new material has been made available for research purposes, including the draft versions of the Delors Report. The study is basically an intertextual and chronological comparative analysis. Comparisons with the Federal Reserve System are also included, as the FRS is also a federally structured central bank system and because the Federal Reserve Act is full of checks and balances. Read more

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The Making Of The Statute Of The European System Of Central Banks ~ Chapter 1 – Introductory Chapter

Zur Thematik
The creation of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is one of the most profound steps in the monetary history of Europe, which has significance not only for professionals, politicians and academics, but also for everyday life. Among the accomplishments that stand out are the establishment of a federally structured European System of Central Banks (ESCB)[i] and the introduction of a single currency. The opinions and decisions of the European Central Bank (ECB)[ii] are almost daily topics for the national newspapers, discussions on its accountability (or perceived lack thereof) are recurrent topics in the European Parliament and political and academic circles. In short, the ECB has become a reality for almost everyone within a couple of years since its establishment. Technically it has been successful: the transition from national currencies to a single currency, the euro, has been a remarkably smooth process despite the gigantic scale of the operation. Though it is too early to evaluate how effective the ECB is in implementing its mandate, for the Monetary Union as a whole inflation rates are lower than they were during a large part of the nineties.

The legal underpinnings of the System and its independence have been extensively studied, see e.g. Stadler (1996), Smits (1997) and also Endler (1998). Also, from a political angle, the degree in which the negotiations leading up to the signing of the so-called Treaty of Maastricht in February 1992 could be characterized as a success for the German or for the French negotiators has been analyzed, e.g. by Viebig (1999) and Dyson/Featherstone (1999). In many respects these authors have concluded that it was a German success. However, the ESCB is not a copy of an existing central bank, not even the Bundesbank. It has been established on the basis of a unique Statute.[iii] This Statute will guide the ECB, also in the future. But like many texts, the Statute is sometimes ambiguous. For a right interpretation of the texts it is important to know their genesis. Sometimes wording was copied from existing other texts, sometimes texts are a delicate compromise, sometimes texts have a difficult technical history.

What distinguishes this study from these other studies is that these studies analyzed the ESCB from only one perspective, i.e. either from a legal, political or economic point of view. This study aims to show how political, economic and institutional considerations were combined and have found their way into the (legal) wording of the ESCB Statute. To this end I focus on each article, describing the economic rationale behind it as well as its genesis, systematically using historical sources which until now have not been used for these purposes. The perspective I take in order to interpret, analyse and assess the Statute of the ESCB is that of checks and balances. We will identify and study the ‘checks and balances’ which have been introduced in the Statute of the ESCB. ‘Checks and balances’ are an important characteristic of any federally designed system. They are part of the ‘rules of the game’, which have to be taken into account by the components of the system, which rules should ensure the system’s stability and effectiveness. For instance, ‘checks and balances’ prevent the possibility of ‘winner takes all’, because this would mean the end of the federal character. A clear normative framework for checks and balances for federal central bank systems is not available, though there are general notions which any workable system of checks and balances has to accord with. Therefore, we will develop a framework to describe the checks and balances in central bank systems.

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The Making Of The Statute Of The European System Of Central Banks ~ Chapter 2: Integration Theory, Federalism And Checks And Balances

Integration and transfer of power
Economic and political integration has been studied by a number of European authors. These studies related to the desirability for economic integration (a.o. Tinbergen)[i] and to ways to achieve political integration, on a worldwide scale or a regional scale (Mitrany, Haas).[ii] And there were ‘practioners’ (Monnet and Schuman). As to the academic writers occupied with questions relating to political integration, they were especially concerned with the issue of the optimal form of international organizations – intergovernmental or supranational. The proponents of supranational forms have won, be it of course dependent on the areas to be covered. Specific attention for the institutional aspects of integration (e.g. which powers to transfer, which decision-making procedures) is usually reserved for writers specialized in law, especially those specialized in European law (Lenaerts, Kapteyn and VerLoren van Themaat and more typically Dutch scholars like Barents and Brinkhorst)[iii] or American constitutionalism (Vile, Boon).[iv] But usually their emphasis is describing and explaining how the institutions actually work (and possibly recommending improvements) rather than putting down an overall framework for the institutional arrangement of those institutions – probably also because many institutions are seen as sui generis or otherwise historically determined. Below we will touch upon relevant elements of the work of those who have written in this area and this will lead us to a description of the concept of checks and balances, which will enable us to develop a framework to assess the role of checks and balances in the framework of the European central bank.

Above we have mentioned Tinbergen. In his book International Economic Integration (1965) Tinbergen argues that a central agent is primarily needed where one government may adversely or favourably affect the interests of other nations. However, he does not deal with the institutional aspects of this agent. Other writers were more focused on the issue of political integration. In Beyond the Nation-State (1968) Ernst Haas deals with the questions such as ‘what kind of international organization is required in order to maximize a process of international integration’ (defined as a process of growing mutual deference and institutional mingling[v]). To answer this question Haas turns to study the dynamics of intergovernmental types of organizations. Intergovernmental organizations, which can only act on behalf of their members and within a limited technical mandate on behalf of themselves, had been recommended by Mitrany, the founder of the functionalist school, as a way to propagate international integration. According to Haas, intergovernmental organizations are only successful, as long as there is mutual trust between the participants, for the delegates remain representatives of their respective governments. Haas applies this approach to the International Labor Organization (ILO), which confirms him in his view that a process of international integration will only have a chance of succeeding when the central organizations are supranational, as opposed to international, in character – the crucial difference being that the supranational organ would be autonomous, having independent rather than intergovernmental powers within its own domain and would have the capacity and desire (or better: a natural propensity) to expand its activity into adjacent sectors.[vi]

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