Essay Essenties Forensische Expertise. Over het ideaal van een Handboek Forensische Expertise

‘’Alfa-Bèta-Cirkel’’, Ontwerp Hans Jakobs, 2020

Inleiding

Met dit essay [1] wil ik een onorthodox voorstel doen tot het vervaardigen van een handboek forensische expertise [2] . Mijn intentie is een echte begrip-verbetering te bewerkstelligen bij alle juridische professionals, bij alle ‘gebruikers van forensische expertise’ in de keten van het strafproces; mijns inziens een tijdloos en zeer nuttig ideaal.

 

Naar aanleiding van recente zitting-bezoeken aan 24 Nederlandse strafzaken waarin deskundigen een belangrijke rol speelden, is mij – in nagenoeg iedere strafzaak – gebleken dat meer begrip en duidelijker uitleg gewenst is van binnen het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI) gepraktiseerde natuurwetenschappelijk en technisch laboratoriumonderzoek, dat aan sporen wordt verricht, ten dienste van de waarheidsvinding in het strafrecht.

Dit sporenonderzoek in het kader van het strafproces wordt ook wel criminalistiek genoemd. Criminalistiek is het natuurwetenschappelijk deel van de forensische wetenschappen. Het richt zich op natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek aan bewijsmateriaal ten behoeve van waarheidsvinding in het strafrecht. En het richt zich op de betekenis van de resultaten van zulk onderzoek voor die waarheidsvinding [3] .

De verklaring van een deskundige ter terechtzitting (art. 339, lid 1 sub 4) en het deskundigenrapport, de ‘schriftelijke bescheiden’ (art. 339, lid 1 sub 5) zijn de twee wettige bewijsmiddelen, die de deskundige regarderen ten aanzien van zijn bijdrage aan het bewijs. Samen met: eigen waarneming van de rechter, verklaringen van de verdachte en verklaringen van een getuige (art. 339, lid 1, sub 1, 2 en 3), zijn dit – limitatief – de vijf wettige bewijsmiddelen, die worden erkend in het Wetboek van Strafvordering.

Ondanks dat er in ons land ook forensische expertise wordt verricht door andere instanties, zoals de Politie, (semi) private instituten, – laboratoria en – personen en universiteiten, wil ik om twee redenen het NFI als mijn uitgangspunt nemen:

1. Anno 2020 wordt het leeuwendeel van gerechtelijke onderzoeken aan sporen in verband met strafbare feiten in Nederland nog immer – op hoog wetenschappelijk niveau – door het NFI verricht; in opdracht van het Openbaar Ministerie tijdens de opsporings- en vervolgingsfase, op verzoek van de rechter-commissaris, de rechter en in voorkomende gevallen ook ten dienste van de verdediging, op verzoek van de advocaat.

2. Anno 1995 heb ik het voorrecht gehad om een naslagboek [4] te mogen initiëren en redigeren over gepraktiseerde forensische expertise binnen de toen nog ‘’Gerechtelijke Laboratoria’’ genaamde voorgangers van het NFI.
Met betrekking tot de toen door mij onderscheiden 31 diverse deskundigheidsgebieden, is in solide samenwerking met 31 experts, destijds een krachtige kennisbron ontstaan ten dienste van de staande en de zittende magistratuur, wat tevens is aanbevolen als leerboek voor de Politie Academie.

 

Na 25 jaar acht ik de tijd rijp voor een actuele en gestructureerde herdefiniëring van voorwaarden ter beter begrip van de forensische deskundigheden, in de vorm van een:
Blauwdruk, die de essenties beschrijft van achtergrondkennis, theorie, praktijk en wetenschap, per expertise.

Ter illustratie van de importantie van een systematische samenstelling van een naslag- en leerboek over forensische expertise heb ik de volgende argumenten-vierdeling gemaakt:
A. Waarom: de redengeving, het vinden van redenen,
B. Wat: de inhoudsopgave, het versterken van bètawetenschappen en technieken,
C. Hoe: de methode, het beschrijven van de essentie in de verbindende Blauwdruk,
D. Waartoe: het verbeteren van het begrip van de doelgroepen.

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Eutopia Institute of Ideas ~ On Middle East, Diversity & Democracy

Developing and challenging new ideas on democracy, middle east, religion and transnational citizenship related to art and politics by multi-media works, (e-)print publishing and related e-magazines and by organizing public and professional meetings.

Eutopia concentrates on a variety of political and cultural issues, including the dialog between the Middle East and the West and developments linked to multiculturalism and the Muslim community in the Europe. Its global perspective is crucial.

For its activities Eutopia draws on an extensive network of freelancers, both at home and abroad, including philosophers, scientists, writers, journalists, artists etc. Eutopia’s good reputation is in fact partly based on its extensive network of contributors.

Eutopia is geared in particular – but not exclusively – towards dialog between North and South, as well as between Europe and the Islamic world. In addition, Eutopia aims to foster a concern for identity and intellectual development among young (migrant) individuals and to raise the quality of their input in European debates on social, cultural and political issues.

Eutopia concentrates on three core activities:
Eutopia E- Magazine: an international window on politics, culture and art.
Eutopia Live: lectures and workshops by and with artists and intellectuals; events and discussions about popular culture, film, literature and music.
Eutopia Academy: international exchange, conferences, networking and consultancy for cultural institutions.

Eutopia’s history and objectives
Eutopia, based in Amsterdam, was set up in 2002 by the sociologists Farhad Golyardi and Shervin Nekuee. Both Eutopia Magazine, of which so far twelve issues have appeared, and the Eutopia Live lectures and seminars have meanwhile found a niche of their own in Dutch cultural life. These activities are realized in collaboration with a great variety of local and nationwide institutions, including De Balie, De Unie, University of Amsterdam, Erasmus University Rotterdam, ISIM, Forum, Hivos, and the city of Amsterdam and the city of Rotterdam.

In general, Eutopia pursues closer collaboration with universities, governmental agencies and cultural institutions and foundations. Moreover, in the past few years, Eutopia has set up an extensive international network of scholars, authors, thinkers and artists in diaspora, many of whom are refugees. They provide major contributions to global intercultural dialogs and the formulation of new views about the dynamic of culture, identity and politics.

Eutopia aspires to develop into a more comprehensive interdisciplinary platform or institute that both nationally and internationally stimulates intercultural dialog in the areas of politics, science, culture and art. As such it fully follows in the prominent Dutch cultural tradition of politics and religious tolerance, which has spawned great thinkers such as Spinoza and Erasmus.

Eutopia is committed to promoting the debate on multicultural affairs in the Netherlands from a European and international perspective. What is the position of the Netherlands with respect to other European and immigration countries? Which social or cultural developments elsewhere have particular relevance for the Netherlands as an evolving multicultural society?

Go to: https://eutopiainstitute.org

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George Orwell – Politics And The English Language

“Politics and the English Language” (1946) is an essay by George Orwell that criticised and ended the “ugly and inaccurate” written English of his time and examines the connection between political orthodoxies and the debasement of language.

The essay focuses on political language, which, according to Orwell, “is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind”. Orwell believed that the language used was necessarily vague or meaningless because it was intended to hide the truth rather than express it. This unclear prose was a “contagion” which had spread to those who did not intend to hide the truth, and it concealed a writer’s thoughts from himself and others. Orwell encourages concreteness and clarity instead of vagueness, and individuality over political conformity.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_and_the_English_Language

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Wim Vredenberg – CV & Research

Home address
Willem J. Vredenberg
Pr. Hendrikweg 2A
NL 6721 AD Bennekom
Tel. +31 318-430303
E-mail wim.vredenberg@wur.nl

Personal data
Date of birth
7 March 1937

Qualifications
“doctorate” experimental physics, mathematics and applied mathematics, University of Utrecht, 1960
PhD Biophysics, thesis ‘Spectrophotometric Studies on Primary and Associated Reactions in Photosynthesis, University of Leiden, 1965 (promotor Prof Dr L.N.M. Duysens)
Full Professor of Plant Physiology (physical aspects), WAU, 1979

Career
1960: junior scientist Biophysics Department University Leiden
1967: principal scientist Center for Agrobiological Research, Wageningen
1970: visiting lecturer Dept Physiology and Biophysics University of Illinois, Urbana, USA (1 year)
1979: professor of Plant Physiology (physical aspects) WAU

Membership of Professional Organizations
Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging
Vereniging voor Biofysica, Chairman 1988-1994
American Society of Plant Physiologists
European Society of Biophysicists
Commissie Biochemie Biofysica van de KNAW 1986-1994
Biologische Raad van de KNAW 1990-1994
Editor Photosynthetica

Research programs
Achievements
From 1979 till 1994(5) the chair of (biophysical) plant physiology at the Wageningen Agricultural University (since 2000 renamed as Wageningen University and Research (WUR)) has focused its research primarily on the interaction of plants with light as a source of energy (photosynthesis) and of information (photomorphogenesis), with special emphasis on the molecular, (bio-)physical and (eco-) physiological aspects thereof. After the merging in 1993 of the till then existing two physiological departments in the new department of Plant Physiology, the emphasis of the chair has become limited mainly to the field of photosynthesis. Research on photomorphogenesis) is now continuing within the research theme Regulation and Differentiation.
Research projects on photosynthesis have been:
Electrogenesis, energy trapping and energy coupling in chloroplasts.
The chloroplast is a perfect model of a photoelectric energy transducer. Changes in the photocurrent profiles (amplitude, rate constant) caused by single turnover or continuous energisation point amongst others to changes in conductance of longitudinal lumenal and stromal phases of the intensity folded thylakoid membrane system. They are found to be accompanied by changes of the internal chloroplast structure as concluded from EM micrographs. The dynamic properties of the thylakoid are apparently of importance for spatial distribution of generated currents and consequently for the bioenergetic performance of the plastid.
Transit sequence-triggered responses in chloroplast envelope membranes
The project aims at getting information on the nature of the membrane responses that are associated with and/or involved in the recognition and following translocation of the precursor across the envelope.
Photosystem II of photosynthesis in chloroplasts
Photosystem II not only selectively senses but also adapts efficiently to environmental stressors. Study of photometric properties of PSII in vivo (fluorescence, luminescence, absorption) offers a sensitive means to study the impact of and defensive strategies of plants against environmental factors (coordinated by Dr. J.J.S. van Rensen)
UV-B interaction with plants
Research focusses on three aspects of this interaction (i) identification of protective mechanisms,(ii) elucidation of the role of protective mechanisms in plant and ecosystem productivity, and (iii) PSII as a target for UV-B radiation

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Wim Vredenberg – Publications & Links

Publications W.J. Vredenberg, LUW, 1978-2008

Vredenberg, W.J. and A.H.C.M. Schapendonk. Evidence for a light-induced blue band shift of part of the P515 pigment pool in intact chloroplasts. FEBS Lett. 91, 1978, 90-93.

Schapendonk, A.H.C.M. and W.J. Vredenberg. Activation of the Reaction II component of P515 in chloroplasts by pigment system 1. FEBS Letters 106, 1979, 257-261.

Schapendonk, A.H.C.M., W.J. Vredenberg and W.J.M. Tonk. Studies on the kinetics of the 515 nm absorbance change in chloroplasts. I. Evidence for the induction of a fast and slow P515 response upon saturating light flashes. FEBS Letters 100, 1979, 325-330.

Tonk, W.J.M., A.H.C.M. Schapendonk and W.J. Vredenberg. A double-compartment mixing cuvette for measuring light- and chemically-induced absorbance changes in suspensions of energy-conserving particles. J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods. 1, 1979, 193-194.

Schapendonk, A.H.C.M., A.M. Hemrika-Wagner, A.P.R. Theuvenet, H.W. Wong Fong Sang, W.J. Vredenberg and R. Kra. Energy-dependent changes of the electrokinetic properties of chloroplasts Biochem. – 19, 1980, 19-22.

Vredenberg, W.J. and A.H.C.M. Schapendonk. Reaction kinetics of P515 in chloroplasts. Transmembrane (reaction I) and inner membrane (reaction II) electric fields. In: Photosynthesis Vol. I, ( G. Akoyunoglou ed.) Balaban Int. Sci. Serv. Philadelphia, 1981, 489-499.

Vredenberg, W.J. P515: A monitor of photosynthetic energization in chloroplast membranes. Physiol. Plant. 53(4), 1981, 598-602.

Kooten, O. van, F.A.M. Leermakers, R.L.A. Peters, and W.J. Vredenberg. Indications for the chloroplasts as a tri-compartment system: Micro-electrode and P515 measurements imply semi-localized chemiosmosis. In: Proc. VIth Int. Congr. on Photosynthesis, ( C. Sybesma ed.) 1983, II4, 265-268.

Kooten, v. O., A.G.M. Gloudemans, and W.J. Vredenberg. On the slow component of P515 and the flash-induced reduction of cytochrome b563 in chloroplast membranes. Photobiochem. Photobiophys. 6, 1983, 9-14.

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Wim Vredenberg – PhD Theses

PhD theses Chair Biophysical Plant Physiology, Wageningen University 1980-2000

Schapendonk, A.H.C.M. -Electrical events associated with primary photosynthetic reactions in chloroplast membranes. -1980, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg

Brakel, G.H. van -The triplet state of chllorophyll-a in whole algal cells -1982, Promotoren Prof.T.J. Schaafsma en Prof.W.J.Vredenberg, co-referent Dr J.J.S.vRensen

Vermaas, W.F.J. -The interaction of quinones, herbicides and bicarbonate with their binding environment at the acceptor side of Photosystem II in photosynthesis. -1984, Promotoren Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg en Prof.Dr G. Renger, co-promotor Dr. J.J.S. van Rensen,

Snel, J. -Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides. -1985, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr.J.J.S. van Rensen,

Cone, J.W. -Photocontrol of seed germination of wildtype and long-hypocotyl mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. -1985, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. R.E. Kendrick,

Peters, R. -Electrochromic effects in relation to energy transduction and energy coupling in chloroplast membranes. -1986, Promotor Prof. Dr. W. J. Vredenberg,

Kraak, H.L. -Phytochrome and greening in etioplasts. -1986, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. R.E. Kendrick,

Kooten, O. van. -Free energy transduction. Modelling electrochemical events. -1988, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg,

Adamse, P. -Mutants as an aid to the study of higher plant photomorphogenesis. -1988, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. R.E. Kendrick,

Hove, L.W.A. van. -The mechanism of NH3 and SO2 uptake by leaves and its physiological effects. -1989, Promotoren Prof. Dr. E.H. Adema en Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg,

Naber, J.D. -Molecular aspects of herbicide binding in chloroplasts. -1989, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. Ir. J.J.S. van Rensen,

Bossen, M.E. -Protoplasts as a model system to study phytochrome-regulated changes in the plasma membrane. -1990, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. R.E. Kendrick,

Ooms, J.J.J. -Electrochromic absorbance changes in relation to electron transport and energy coupling in thylakoid membranes. -1990, Promotor Prof. Dr. W. J. Vredenberg,

Peters, J.L. -Photomorphogenetic mutants of higher plants. -1992, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. R.E. Kendrick,

Schansker, G. -Mechanistic aspects of the inhibition of photosynthesis by light -1996, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr.ir. J.J.S. van Rensen.

Kerckhoffs, Huub -Physiological Functions of Phytochromes in Tomato. A study using photomorphogenic mutants -1996, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor: Dr R.E. Kendrick

Voorthuysen T. van. -The electrical potential as a gauge of photosynthetic performance in plant Chloroplasts. A patch-clamp study. -1997, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. J.F.H. Snel.

Curwiel, V.B. -Regulation of photosynthesis and energy dissipation in triazine-resistant and susceptible chenopodium album. -1997, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr.ir. J.J.S. van Rensen.

Geel, Corine. -Photosystem II electron flow as a measure for phytoplankton gross primary production -1997, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor Dr. J.F.H. Snel,

Wijngaard, P.W.J. van den -The electrophysiology of chloroplast protein import. The involvement of an anion channel in protein translocation across the inner mebrane. -1999, Promotor Prof. Dr. W.J. Vredenberg, co-promotor, Dr J.F.H. Snel

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