From the Web – The World Atlas of Language Structures




The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of 55 authors (many of them the leading authorities on the subject).
The first version of WALS was published as a book with CD-ROM in 2005 by Oxford University Press. The first online version was published in April 2008. Both are superseeded by the current online version, published in April 2011.

WALS Online is a joint effort of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Max Planck Digital Library.

It is a separate publication, edited by Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2011)
ISBN: 978-3-9813099-1-1. The main programmer is Robert Forkel.

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Raymond Carver ~ Dreams Are What You Wake Up From

Music: I Can’t Stop Loving You ~ Bobby Vinton

Electric Cereal

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Graham Greene And Mexico ~ A Hint Of An Explanation


Graham Greene 1904 – 1991

In a short letter to the press, in which he referred to Mexico, Graham Greene substantially expressed his view of the world.
“I must thank Mr. Richard West for his understanding notice of The Quiet American. No critic before, that I can remember, has thus pinpointed my abhorrence of the American liberal conscience whose results I have seen at work in Mexico, Vietnam, Haiti and Chile.”
(Yours, etc., Letters to the Press. 1979)

Mexico is a peripheral country with a difficult history, and undeniably the very long border that it shares with the most powerful nation on earth has largely determined its fate.
After his trip to Mexico in 1938, Greene had very hard words to say about the latter country, but then he spoke with equal harshness about the “hell” he had left behind in his English birthplace, Berkhamsted. He “loathed” Mexico…” but there were times when it seemed as if there were worse places. Mexico “was idolatry and oppression, starvation and casual violence, but you lived under the shadow of religion – of God or the Devil.”
However, the United States was worse:
“It wasn’t evil, it wasn’t anything at all, it was just the drugstore and the Coca Cola, the hamburger, the sinless empty graceless chromium world.”
(Lawless Roads)

He also expressed abhorrence for what he saw on the German ship that took him back to Europe:
“Spanish violence, German Stupidity, Anglo-Saxon absurdity…the whole world is exhibited in a kind of crazy montage.”

As war approached, he wrote: “Violence came nearer – Mexico is a state of mind.” In “the grit of the London afternoon”, he said, “I wondered why I had disliked Mexico so much.” Indeed, upon asking himself why Mexico had seemed so bad and London so good, he responded: “I couldn’t remember”.
And we ourselves can repeat the same unanswered question. Why such virulent hatred of Mexico? We know that his money was devalued there, that he caught dysentery there, that the fallout from the libel suit that he had lost awaited him upon his return to England, and that he lost his reading glasses, among other things that could so exasperate a man that he would express his discontent in his writing, but I recall that it was one of Greene’s friends, dear Judith Adamson, who described one of his experiences in Mexico as unfair. Why?

GreeneAgentThe answer might lie in the fact that he never mentioned all the purposes of his trip.
In The Confidential Agent, one of the three books that Greene wrote after returning to England, working on it at the same time as The Power and the Glory, he makes no mention whatsoever of Mexico, but it is hard to believe that the said work had nothing to do with such an important experience as his trip there.
D, the main character in The Confidential Agent, goes to England in pursuit of an important coal contract that will enable the government he represents to fight the fascist rebels in the Spanish Civil War, though Greene never explicitly states that the country in question is Spain. The said confidential agent knows that his bosses don’t trust him and have good reason not to do so, just as he has good reason to mistrust them.
We, who know Greene only to the extent that he wanted us to know him, are aware that writers recount their own lives as if they were those of other people, and describe the lives of others as if they were their own. Might he not, then, have transferred to a character called D, in a completely different setting, his own real experiences as a confidential agent in Mexico?
Besides wishing to witness the religious persecution in Mexico first-hand, his mission might also have been to report on developments in the aforesaid country and regarding its resources -above all its petroleum- in view of the imminent outbreak of the Second World War. Read more

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Joseph Conrad Collection

Joseph Conrad was born to Polish parents in 1857 in Berdychiv, which is part of modern Ukraine. As a young man he spent 19 years as a merchant marine sailing on French and British ships. His years at sea and the various persons he encountered served as inspiration for events and characters in his subsequent literary career. English was his third language (after Polish and French), which imbues his writing with a distinct style.
The Joseph Conrad collection contains manuscripts, letters, documents, and photographs. Of particular significance are manuscripts for several of his novels, including Almayer’s Folly (1895), Chance (1913), and Victory (1915). His outgoing correspondence includes letters to Henry D. Davray, Norman Douglas, Henry James, Alfred A. Knopf, and others.

Incoming correspondence has been excluded from this online collection due to copyright concerns.

This collection was digitized as part of Project REVEAL (Read and View English & American Literature).

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Joseph Conrad ~ Nostromo

Author’s Note
“Nostromo” is the most anxiously meditated of the longer novels which belong to the period following upon the publication of the “Typhoon” volume of short stories.
I don’t mean to say that I became then conscious of any impending change in my mentality and in my attitude towards the tasks of my writing life. And perhaps there was never any change, except in that mysterious, extraneous thing which has nothing to do with the theories of art; a subtle change in the nature of the inspiration; a phenomenon for which I can not in any way be held responsible. What, however, did cause me some concern was that after finishing the last story of the “Typhoon” volume it seemed somehow that there was nothing more in the world to write about. Read more

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Van ellende edel. De criticus Slauerhoff over het dichterschap ~ Inhoudsopgave & Woord vooraf


1. Inleiding
2. Demonen en dode zielen: Ruslands letterkunde
3. Stéphane Mallarmé: mysterieuze hersenspinsels en het vrije vers
4. ‘In den beginne was het Woord’: een beginselverklaring
5. Jules Laforgue: ‘stoutmoedige acrobaat in tijd, ruimte en gebied van het ik’
6. Arthur Rimbaud: ‘Mijn doode kameraad, ontembre zwerver, burgerterger’
7. Tristan Corbière: ‘Mijn broederziel, wiens incarnatie ik misschien ben’
8. ‘Het geval Lautréamont’: de logica van een abnormaal individu
9. Rainer Maria Rilke: ‘het móeten zwerven’
10. ‘Gorters werk bezitten is al een groot geluk’. Slauerhoff en het vrije vers
11. Slauerhoff polemist
12. Recapitulatie
13. De identiteit van de dichter. Slauerhoffs vers-praktijk
14. ‘Van ellende edel’. Besluit

Bijlage I. Slauerhoffs publicaties beschouwend proza
Bijlage II. Een selectie uit Slauerhoffs poëticale gedichten
Bijlage III. Corbières besproken gedichten
Bijlage IV. Slauerhoffs stuk over Lautréamont
Bijlage V. Slauerhoffs besproken gedichten

Extra: VARA ~ De wereld draait door: Van Dis en Meinderts over de nalatenschap van Slauerhoff

Rozenberg Publishers 2005 – ISBN 90 5170 516 6

Woord vooraf
Dit proefschrift was een project dat voor het grootste deel tot stand kwam in stilte en in de eenzame teruggetrokkenheid van studeerkamer, bibliotheek en archief. Toch had deze arbeid niet zonder anderen gerealiseerd kunnen worden. Een aantal mensen wil ik daarom op deze plaats bedanken voor hun bijdrage aan de totstandkoming van dit boek. Read more

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Van ellende edel ~ Inleiding ~ Want wie vond ooit door te zoeken?

omslag_slau_zwart.indd1.1 Probleem- en doelstelling
‘Vanouds bracht reeds het dichter-zijn met zich mee, het móeten zwerven’, schrijft Slauerhoff in 1925 in een bespreking over Rilke.[i] Behalve het beroep dat hij op de Oudheid doet, valt het op dat Slauerhoff hier twee kenmerken van het dichterschap geeft: de aanwezigheid van een dwingende macht die de dichter in zijn ban houdt, en de geneigdheid van de dichter tot zwerven, tot een reizend leven dat een sedentair bestaan uitsluit.

Beide opvattingen heeft Slauerhoff in vers-theorie en vers-praktijk beleden. Zowel de door een demonische macht beheerste dichter, die hem tot scheppen dwingt, ook al wil hij het niet, als de onrustig dolende dichter (‘De dichter gaat de wereld rond’), vindt in het werk van Slauerhoff zijn duidelijkste verschijning in de figuur van de poète maudit.

Anders dan dat van tijdgenoten en collega-dichters als Marsman, Nijhoff, Bloem en Vestdijk is het kritisch werk van Slauerhoff altijd op de achtergrond gebleven. Het is het minst bekende deel van zijn oeuvre. Zijn brieven genieten zelfs meer bekendheid. De grote belangstelling voor de persoonlijkheid van de dichter Slauerhoff zal hier wel de reden voor zijn. Maar door een biografische bril bezien is het kritisch werk uiterst verhelderend. Het vormt dan ook een onlosmakelijk onderdeel van zijn levensbeschrijving. Opvallend is bijvoorbeeld Slauerhoffs vroege belangstelling voor Franse auteurs, in het bijzonder enkele dichters uit het Franse symbolisme[ii] en poètes maudits van het fin de siècle, aan wie hij tussen 1919 en 1925 een zestal stukken wijdde. Behalve een persoonlijke typering en interpretatie van deze auteurs en hun werk laten deze artikelen ook zien hoe Slauerhoff dacht over zaken die zijn eigen poëzie betroffen. Read more

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